Friday, 6 May 2016

UK vs USA trailers

USA trailer.

UK trailer.

The first differs between the two videos. The american one features a comment about the wealth of the unseen character played by Oscar Isaac, but for the UK trailer it as about how a normal employee gets to meet him. This can be seen as a big difference between audiences as the american audience would be more inspired to watch a film about a really rich guy living in a secluded estate than a film about an everyday guy being allowed to meet him.

Another scene that differs is the introduction to the A.I 'Ava.' In the american trailer, 'Nathan' (played by Oscar Isaac) simply says "wanna see something cool" before the reveal whereas the UK trailer features no direct announcement of 'Ava,' her reveal is made more profound.

UK trailer.

USA trailer.

The main difference between the two is in the references (or lack of) to the original Mad Max film. The UK trailer gives mention to the original film in several ways such as the intro being an obvious reference to the intro of 'Mad Max 2: The Road Warrior.' Not only this but he also mentions the words "not again" in his speech as a reference to the old films.

Secondly, the UK advert features the names of three of the cast members "Tom Hardy" "Charlize Theron" and "Nicholas Hoult" who are all British actors. No names are present in the USA trailer because there isn't anyone who would encourage the American audience to go and see the film.

Star wars did not need separate regional trailers as it has a well established fan base in possibly every country that it was played in.

Friday, 11 December 2015



What part of the supply chain is distribution? Distribution is the third part of the supply chain.

What is distribution often referred to as? 'Invisible art'

What does 'vertical integration' mean when discussing distribution? Vertical integration is where three stages are seen as one larger process.

Why isn't 'vertical integration' so common in the independent sector? Producers have no formal connections with exhibitors and producers need exhibitors to promote and show the film it its best possible way.

What three stages are involved in the independent sector? Licensing, marketing and logistics.


What is licensing? The process that the distributer of the film would go through to be able to legally show the film to the public. 

What are the two levels of licensing? International, marketing the film across the world and local, releasing the film in just one particular country. 

What is the advantage of being a major US studio? They have their own distribution offices in all of the major territories already. 

What three different types of rights can you acquire on a local level? Theatrical rights, video rights, video and TV rights. 

What are royalties? Something that the distributer pays to the producer out of the profits that the film generates. 

What is the most effective way to increase interest in a film? A theatrical opening. 

How long does it take for a film to reach 'free to air' TV? Two years.


What are the two key questions surrounding the marketing of a film? The two key questions are 'When?' and 'How?'

What day are films typically released on? Films are typically released on Fridays.

What will a distributor look at before releasing a film on a Friday? To ensure there are only a few other films which are released on Fridays.

What is a 'light' week in terms of distribution? It will ensure that there will be both screen space and adequate review column inches in the press allocated to any potential release.

What does it mean to 'position' a film distinctively? It will be positioned distinctively and a void a release date occupied by other films with similar traits, such as story, subject, country of origin, etc.

Why has this become increasingly difficult in the UK? It has become increasingly difficult, as the release schedule has regularly featured over 10 new releases in a week.

What are P&A? Are the nuts and bolts of marketing and distributing films, and its known as Prints and Advertising.

How much can P&A cost? Its the bulk of the distributor's investment, after paying the initial fee for rights, and can range from less than £1,000 to over £1 million for the release of a film in the UK.

4-Markets, prints and adverts

Typically how many prints will a specialised film have? Specialised films will often have less than 10 prints, with them 'toured' over a 6 month period to all parts of the UK.

How many will mainstream films have? Commercial mainstream films however, will often open on over 200 prints. These simultaneously screen in all major UK towns and cities.
What is a key factor in developing the profile of a film? For most films, favourable press response is a key factor in developing the profile of a film. 
How else can awareness of a film be raised? Awareness of a film can also be raised by posters, advertising campaigns (e.g magazines and newspapers), and press campaigns (e.g interviews.)
Why is distribution in the UK seen as risky? Distribution in the UK is seen as risky compared to other countries because the cost of print advertising is comparatively high.
Why are companies looking towards viral marketing? Companies are looking towards viral marketing in order to extend the reach of advertising and develop more effective communication with audiences at a lower cost. 
What are the benefits of a 'talent visit'? The benefit of a talent visit is that the director and/or lead actors win significant editorial coverage to support a release. It makes the volume of coverage far outweigh the cost of talent visits.


In the pre digital film age what was a distributor responsible for? Before film became mostly digital, a distributor would arrange the transportation of the film to cinemas and theatres, the tapes, videos or DVDs to shops and ensure that this whole process is as efficient as possible

How much does a 35mm print typically cost? Each 35mm print costs around £1000 so handling it needs to be done safely. If the film has subtitles than it may cost as much as twice this.

How many reals is a typical feature print? Within the UK specifically, feature prints are shortened so that they can be easily transported. They are usually around 20 minutes long and an entire feature film would require 5-6 of them.

Why do 35mm prints get damaged? The simple answer to this question is that 35mm prints get damaged from repetitive use as they are moved around lots of cinemas and played through many times.

Where are prints stored? The UK's central print warehouse which is located in West London.

How long did a theatrical release used to last? Originally, the distributor would run two different releases, the first of which would last for around 6 months, trying to reach optimum coverage until the prints are essentially destroyed after this period. Any remaining prints are then used in second-run which lasts for the rest of the film's licensed period.

6-Digital distribution

When did digital distribution begin in the UK? 2005
Name two advantages of digital distribution-Easy to replicate and cost effective.

Which countries adopted digital distribution early and why? China and Brazil.

How many screens were digital in 2005 and how many are now (you'll need to google this) 192 screens.

Why has digital distribution radically altered the operating model of distributors? 

What has happened to the typical release period for a film?
Reduced 3-6 months to 1-3 months.

What is a loss leader (google it) and why are companies using the Cinema as a potential loss leader?

Friday, 4 December 2015

What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media institutions and audiences?

In this essay i will be outlining wether the changes seen by audiences and institutions, that have been brought about by advancement in digital technology, are improvements or degradations.

One major significant change relating to institutions (the big six/companies that produce films) is the ability to use digital cameras to film movies. Digital cameras are lighter than film cameras, they do not require film which also helps with logistics and running cost (which means the money that is usually spent on film/transporting the film etc can be spent elsewhere). In mad max: fury road, small, hand held cameras (canon 5Ds) with wide-angle lenses where originally used to get close up shots of the main characters from within the vehicles, so the camera operator would be in the passenger seat for example whilst Tom Hardy was in the driver's seat. This, unfortunately, led to members of the crew sometimes appearing at the edge of the shot which became to costly to 'paint-out' every single time. These small cameras where then replaced by a big 'edge-arm' camera that had the same quality as the rest of the big cameras that they were using for filming such as the Alexa plus and sat on a moving rig next to the vehicles. The camera could then be moved right into the window of the vehicle essentially getting the same shot as they were before with the wide angle lenses in the passenger seat. The 'edge-arm' was, however, much more versatile and manoeuvrable so could not only film close ups but then switch to mid-shots and wide angles of other characters in different cars and finish with a long-shot of every vehicle in the chase (150-ish) in one fluid movement. This would not have been possible with any film camera or even most digital ones. This then added to the quality of the final product so should be considered as significant in a positive way.

Furthermore, post-production has seen significant changes in relation to the continuing development of digital media technology in the form of CGI and editing. Previously in films, all stunts performed had to be performed, wether with guide wires and harnesses or by using dummies and models e.t.c. The development of CGI has given the power to producers to create things that could never actually happened, wether that is giant planets exploding fully rendered, real life cities being destroyed or even making a person see-through as 'Ava' is in 'Ex_Machina.' The character of Ava, an AI that was designed to look more like an expensive bicycle or F1 car than a robot, has a torso (as well as other body parts) that is virtually completely see through. They did this by scanning Alicia Vikander in her costume and then filming all the scenes with her in, they then re-scanned her and re-filmed all the same scenes so they could 'Rotoscope' the background onto her torso e.t.c making it seem transparent. Although 'rotoscoping' has been around since 1915, it could never have been used in a live action film in this manner and still have the visuals look as realistic as they were. Now that these kinds of visual effects are possible, i believe that audiences particularly will benefit from this significant development.

Moreover, marketing has developed in leaps and bounds thanks to the internet. The main significance with regards the films and the Internet (beside online streaming) is probably the ability to target advertisement to specific audiences on social media and YouTube. For example, if you watch a movie trailer on YouTube for Mad Max 2, it will most probably recommend the trailers for either Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome or Mad Max: Fury Road. Targeted advertisement allows distributors to spend less money on marketing but use their funds more effectively and efficiently. Not only this, but the use of viral advertisment also helps distributors get a lot of hype and reach a lot of people for little money. One example of this is the leaking of the trailer for 'Batman VS Superman' a day before it was officially released, the trailer was slightly altered and then re-released so that the first trailer was a just a trailer for the official one almost, the word of mouth boomed and over 9 million people saw it not long after it came out. So, for little investment, it can be expected that a lot of people will go to see this film. This development is possitive mainly for the institutions as they will most likely recieve more money from ticket sales etc but it also helps audiences as it shows to them films that may have sliped under the rader previously.

In conclusion i beleive that most of the developments in digital media technology have had a possitive significance for both audiences and institutions.